In-vivo Pharmacology

PTL can provide exhaustive efficacy models in a wide range of therapeutic areas which include:


  • Subcutaneous tumor xenograft model (mice)
  • Orthotopic xenograft model
  • Metastasis models (mice)
  • Intravenous xenograft model (mice)
  • Orthotopic tumour models (pancreas, colorectal, liver, endometrium) (mice)
  • Pulmonary melanoma metastatic model
  • Acute leukemia model (mice)
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Genetic Models – Zucker Obese Rat (Zucker fa/fa), db/db mice and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF)
  • Diet Induced – Obesity using C57BL/6 Mice (DIO)
  • STZ Induced – Streptozotocin + Nicotinmide model for T2DM and Streptozotocin Induced T1DM



  • Acute – LPS induced pulmonary inflammation (Rat), Carrageenan induced paw edema (Rat & Mouse), Cytokine Induced Inflammation (Rat & Mouse)
  • Chronic – Carrageenan Airpouch inflammation (Rat), Cotton Pellet Induced Granuloma (Rat), Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis (Rat)


Pain Models

  • Chemically Induced Nociception – Acetic acid induced writhing (Rat), Formalin induced tonic pain (Rat & Mouse)
  • Neuropathic Pain – Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) (Rat), chronic constriction injury (CCI) (Rat), Spinal Nerve Ligation (SNL) (Rat)
  • Inflammatory Pain – Adjuvant (CFA) induced pain


Auto-immune Disorders

  • Arthritis – Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) (Rat & Mouse), Adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) (Rat)
  • Psoriasis – TPA induced epidermal hyperplasia (Mouse), Human Psoriatic Skin Transplanted SCID (Mouse)
  • Colitis – Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS) Induced (Ulcerative Colitis) (Mouse), Trinitrobenzene Sulphonate (TNBS) Induced (Chron’s Disease) (Rat & Mouse)
  • Multiple Sclerosis – Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis (EAE), Chronic Progressive & Relapsing Remitting Models (Mouse)



  • Medial Meniscal Tear (Rat)
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection (ACLT) (Rat)
  • ACLT + Partial Medial Meniscotomy (Rat)
  • Spontaneous Osteoarthritis (G. Pigs)
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Type I includes Ovalbumin Induced Dermatitis (Mouse), Oxazolone Induced Dermatitis (Mouse)
  • TYPE IV includes Methylated Bovine Serum Albumin (mBSA) induced paw edema (Mouse), Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) Induced paw edema (Mouse), Acute Graft versus Host reaction (Rat)



  • Critical Limb Ischemia (Mouse)
  • Wound Healing models (Rat) (Excision; Burn; Incision)
  • Carbon tetra-chloride induced liver fibrosis (Rat)
  • Dexamethasone induced Cachexia (Rat)
  • Sepsis (caecum ligation puncture model) (mice)
  • Dry eye syndrome (mice)